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Structural Elements with LVL KERTO®-S+Q - From Bridge to Building Construction Design

Points: 1693

Structural Elements with LVL KERTO®-S+Q - From Bridge to Building Construction Design by L. Haefner, Dr.-Ing. IBH-SE: L+T+R, Sophie-Charlottenstr. 9-10, 14059 BERLIN Email: IBH.SELT@gmx.info 1. Overview of Pedestrian and Bike Bridge with LVL Kerto-S/-Q The bridge is a 4-span construction (Graphic 1) with the first span of a load bearing roof section above the walkway and 3-span T-beam construction with an open walkway. The bridge was built with modern wood composite of Kerto®, laminated veneer lumber (LVL) with available large boards bonded together. Steel elements are frames, truss girder and plate connections. The first, covered span is the technical remarkable part with a weak torsion folded plate, built with LVL of type Kerto-Q wood composite boards and steel bracing truss girder underneath. There is load transfer from walkway by the hanger (vertical beam) into the timber roof and from there to steel frame at two supports. Bridge bearings are placed on a concrete pile wall and on middle pier (Graphic 2). For the uncovered part of this modern bridge was used high-strength material of wood composite Kerto-Q with large boards and Kerto-S beams for continuous 3-span walkway. With the advantage of large Kerto-Q boards and overlapping as a 3-span continuous beam has been build (Graphic 3). 2. Building Construction of a Rooftop at Berlin + Tall Timber Building With the experience of a bridge follows heightening of an existing building as rooftop with the advantage of construction material Kerto and foremost pre-fabrication. There are pre-fabricated walls with Kerto-Q boards as airtight construction. The rib-slab elements are covered with special concrete layer and connected as Timber-Concrete-Composite (TCC) for fire protection. This construction method results in an assembly with a high noise control structural element. Furthermore, there are research results here presented for tall Timber Building design with façade optimization against wind and vibration loading. 3. Advantage of LVL Kerto-S/Q and Construction Details There are the dimension and material data with properties such as • Large boards with width * length = 1.80m * 23m, and various thickness. • High strength timber material, orthotropic timber properties. • Transfers strength capabilities for Kerto-Q for load transfer, With basic “pressure bonding” and/or “screw-pressure bonding” large pre-fabricated structural wall and plate elements can be produced. The required bracing of any building can be solved by Kerto-S or much better as bearing walls with Kerto-Q (Graphic 4). Also, for our research activity some essential references and literature are following presented. Berlin, Dec. 31st, 2017 -2-  References: Barber, D. (2017): “Fire Safety and Tall Buildings – What`s Next”, Report to ASCE/SEI Structures Congress 2017, at Denver Colorado / U.S.A, April, 8th 2017, published in ASCE/SEI Proceedings, edited by J.G, Soules, Vol. 3, p. 556 - 569. Bodig, J., Jayne, B. A. (1982): “Mechanics of Wood and Wood Composites”, 1st Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, p. 1 - 712. SOM Report (2013): “Timber Tower Research Project”, Chicago, p. 1 ÷ 105. Tannert, T. and Moudgil (2017): “Structural Design, Approval and Monitoring of a UBC Tall Wood Building”, Report to ASCE/SEI Structures Congress 2017, at Denver Colorado/U.S.A, April, 8th 2017, published in ASCE/SEI Proceedings, edited by J.G, Soules, Vol. 3, p.541 - 547.

TINY HOUSE for short vacations - M4

Points: 1106

- TINY HOUSE for short vacations - M4 The prefabricated TINY HOUSE is a limited blueprint building sitting on a 25 m2 space. The structure comprises of four main modulars which are delibrately designed to accomodate a kitchen/dining, living, sleeping and sanitary areas. This project is purposely tailored to accomodate two persons during short vacations and it also serve as a platform to strengthen and expalin the importance of building with wood and modular systems. Without site specificity, the TINY HOUSE showcases the possibilities of living big in a small space with great comfort. Further, it acts as a strategy to reduce the human footprint on the environment and save energy as well. The eco-friendly design proposal sits on just six reinforced concrete footings to elevate it from moisture. Air flow below the structure allows the building to remain cold during the summer and in winter hinders any accumulation of condensed water within the building. The deliberate design with an extra ceiling helps to create enough head room for living/kitchen areas and further ensures the penetration of sunlight into the building. Compact living space with enough daylight connects the interior structure to the outdoor. Hanging lights on the interior strengthens the brightness of the building particularly at night. As a design statement of the panels, it is suggested to have them prefabricated together with the door and window fittings in order to speed up the construction process. Space for the kitchen/dining is designed without interfering with the living space activities. The wooden interior helps to reduce any painting cost of the building. Due to the limited blueprint of the building area, space saving design ideas are reflected on the furniture desposition with full height sliding doors. In other words, furniture for this project are crafted with space saving design ideas to transform the interior of the building to a larger space. A Porch is provided to maximize the outdoor living space and the creation of relaxation space during the summer periods. Rain water harvesting possibilities and the provision of simple water tanks is envisaged in the design.

TINY HOUSE for short vacations

Points: 760

The prefabricated TINY HOUSE is a limited blueprint building sitting on a 25 m2 space. The structure comprises of five main modulars which are delibrately designed to accomodate a kitchen/dining, living, sleeping and sanitary areas. This project is purposely tailored to accomodate two persons during short vacations and it also serve as a platform to explain the importance of building with wood and modular systems. Without site specificity, the TINY HOUSE can be built in any remote location, whether it's in Europe, Africa or any of the other continents due to it's simplistic design approach and straightforwardness in construction. The eco-friendly design proposal sits on just six reinforced concrete footings to elevate it from moisture. Air flow below the structure allows the building to remain cold during the summer and in winter hinders any accumulation of condensed water within the building. The deliberate design with an extra ceiling helps to create enough head room for living/kitchen areas and further ensures the penetration of sunlight into the building. Compact living space with enough daylight connects the interior structure to the outdoor. Hanging lights on the interior strengthens the brightness of the building particularly at night. As a design statement of the panels, it is suggested to have them prefabricated together with the door and window fittings in order to speed up the construction process. Space for the kitchen/dining is designed without interfering with the living space activities. The wooden interior helps to explain the charm of the ecological aesthetics of the building hence reducing any painting cost. Due to the limited blueprint of the building area space saving design ideas are reflected on the furniture desposition with full height sliding doors. In other words, furniture for this project are crafted with space saving design indeas to transform the interior of the building to a larger space. Sundeck is provided to maximize the outdoor living space and the creation of relaxation space during the summer periods. With the help of the prefabricated stairs, users can easily connect the ground level with the sundeck above. Rain water harvesting possibilities and the provision of simple water tanks is envisaged in the design.

Modular floor

Points: 428

How to create universal modules for an apartment building? So that with a minimum number of modules there was a maximum number of variants of apartment layouts. This problem is very urgent now. The solution to this problem will allow building efficiently and quickly. There may be many solutions to this issue. A good material for solving this problem are wooden structures. Since the tree is very light and environmentally friendly. I propose one of the options for solving modules for the construction of multi-apartment houses. The idea is to divide the floor of a apartment building into individual components (modules). Such components can be manufactured at the factory. Then quickly assemble the floor of the apartment house from these components. Two main modules are created: module 1 and module 2. Plus two additional modules: module 3 (staircase), module 4 (staircase with elevator). And plus module 5 (corridor overlap). Ready-made modules are brought to the construction site where the floors of the apartment building are collected from them. You can use modules for both the construction of new apartment buildings and for the superstructure on top of existing houses. Modules are manufactured from Kerto LVL products with thickness 51mm, 57mm, 75mm. Structural base - columns, beams and overlapping. From the modules you can collect different versions of floors. Modules are manufactured at the factory and ready to be brought to the construction site. At the construction site the modules are joined together by means of connecting parts. Where there are spaces without walls and overlapping additional walls and overlapping are added at the construction site. Also additional walls and overlapping can be added at the factory. Holes for engineering communications and ventilation shafts are made in modules according to the planning solutions of apartments. Module 1, module 2, module 3, module 4 do not change. Only the module 5 changes, depending on the length of the corridor and the docking of other modules. Fastening of modules to each other can occur in various ways: with the help of connecting metallic elements; with the help of protruding structural elements; with the help of special adhesives.

KERT'EAU - SEA KERTO

Points: 396

Our building concept aims at building large autonomous and floating neighbourhood size developments in coastal and riverside areas. Floating buildings are made of reinforced concrete hulls with water ballast on top of which are superimposed three levels of constructions: one technical level under water line; one working and living level above; one green gardening and farming at rooftop level. Concrete hulls are chosen for durability and maintenance purposes as well as cladding and roofing materials which should sustain very harsh marine conditions. 3D modules and building kits are prefabricated in mobile and industrial facilities such as large factory ships. BIM process would be fully implemented in building design and fabrication of building kits. Say one dwelling is made of 4 3D modules then one factory ship of only 4000 units may potentially prefabricate and carry all 1400 3D modules necessary to build a 350 apartments development. 3D modules are craned off the factory ship directly on concrete hulls and connected to each other in order to make housing buildings. 3D modules structure is made exclusively of Kerto panels for walls, floor and roof as well as Kerto posts and beams. These novel Kerto modules dimensions are: 3m large, 9m long and 2.7m high. Kerto module envelope is covered with rigid fire resistant thermal materials. And waterproofed with ventilated cladding panels and roofing material. Contact: Team 2 Hackathon Nantes: Rémi Thépaut Mathilde Godard Floris Marchais Christophe Henry

Vault Ply

Points: 183

The vault ply is an element made with plywood. It consists of a piece of 60 cm by 120 cm of 12.5 cm of thickness and the view faces have the fibers parallel to the axis of the vault, in this way it is easier the arching of the piece. In order to achieve bigger surfaces to the compression will be necessary to apply two layer of pieces. I suggest that the layer below the boveda and its upper side contain two layers of Vault Ply glued to each other in the parallel orientation to the axis with finger joint system. A second layer also serves to complete the assembly of the pieces. All are superimposed and crossed. That way there is a single layer glued and screwed. Between both layers there will be a batten cross frame (as it appears in the scheme) The whole of the lower layer and the upper and the core with the batten, results in a unique body and working to the compression and thus work like a real vault. Its core allows the circulation of air and it is recommended in times of heat to take advantage of its internal ventilation and to remove the heat by the upper ridge. Reinforced brick vaults were very common in the last century, using steel and portland cement, all materials with CO2 footprint. And in this century it is very common the realization of arched beams on which are supported elements that do not necessarily work to the compression. With my proposal I intend to simplify a bit the resolution of vaults without the need for special beams. I `m developing another ""egg shell"", which has inspired many builders. Obviously this wooden vault should be covered with all necessary precautions against the environment.

Plywood Shingle

Points: 190

The plywood shingles are made with normal plywood or treated plywood. The system to cover the roofs with plywood shingles is similar to the traditional roof of wooden shingles. But this system has the benefit of being able to normalize its size by not having the natural problems of a natural tile. We are in a system that allows all kinds of size and shape desired.  The plywood wood by its composition is very stable in the face of temperature changes and will not bend as much as a natural tile and the same will not crack like a natural tile. The plywood shingle should be treated to stabilize it due to changes in humidity. It should also be treated to avoid fungi. If you do not have plywood treated I suggest that you try the following way: 1) Total immersion of the shingle for 24 hours in a solution of copper sulphate. 2) Natural drying. 3) Total immersion of the shingle in a solution of burned oil and diesel oil and remove it immediately. 4) Natural drying. 5) Total immersion of the shingle in protective paint for wood for 1 hour. 6) Let it dry naturally. After placing the shingle on the roof, paint with a wooden protector hand. A treatment of this way allows a duration of 5 years without having to paint again. The plywood shingle has a very important breathing system which allows air to circulate below the shingle to avoid areas of moisture stored there below. For that a series of grooves will be made which are expressed in the attached file. These grooves should be done before proceeding with your treatment.

Plywood Link

Points: 190

It consists of a piece of plywood 10 cm wide by 120 cm long and varied thickness. In its extremities this will have finger joint. It will be the component of straight beams or curved beams. It will be used to create beams of the laminated type but without the need of special presses, that is to say that the people can make them in its own workshop or place of work. This Plywood Link has to be glued and screwed to ensure excellent adhesion with the other elements. If it is a question of constructing a straight beam, then an element 1 inch in thickness can be used and the fibers of the viewed facing should go in the long direction of the beam. In case of constructing a curved beam, a thinner plywood of half an inch is recommended, whose faces have the fiber perpendicular to the direction of the beam. In this case the element can be easily undulated without breaking. Considering these concepts will be possible to construct buildings without necessity of CLT, especially those that contain curved walls and intermediate floors. Even build mensulated structures, which can be strengthened with steel in the areas of high tensile stress. All this will help us to consider the use of wood in places and designs unimaginable. In the same way we can consider this element for the construction of new wooden ships. Reusing wood to build large transatlantic ships will be an ecological solution to the use of steel in modern ships. It will be possible to construct the shell of the ships without needing structural ribs because crossed the planes formed by the Plywood Links (similar to the CLT) will obtain a very firm board and with the desired undulation. I name this as Crossed Plywood Link Timber. In order to realize these undulated planes one must have a formwork with the desired shape, on which one begins to work. Beyond this approach in nautical science, I consider that naval engineers should consider everything related to structure and considerations to be taken in the face of water hazards, such as covering the part of the submerged ship with steel, etc.

Combined concrete and timber frame structure

Points: 192

Open Source Wood Competition submission by Johanna Byrne. As a follow up to my submission to The City above the City Competition, my Open Source wood competition submission is the developed combined concrete and timber frame extension accessed via an atrium from my 1897 terraced Edwardian apartment in South London UK. Composed of circa 35% concrete and 65% timber, additional materials include steel, silicone, rocks or recycled building demolition debris, foil backed plaster walls and timber floors. With insulation infill to triple leaf walls and double leaf roof finished with felt battens and slate. Ecological values include sustainability through the use of sustainable timber and recycled building demolition debris. Mass produced components with all timbers being 50mm x 50mm sections. Walls being 300mm thick and roof 200mm. Upper limit economical span 47600mm long and 36600mm wide. Prefabricated components in storage available for fast track building needs from residential to war and natural disaster zones. Adaptable to a variety of building types. High thermal and critical mass increased fire resistance with a reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Helping to combat climate change with the first floor providing shelter in the event of flooding with the potential for a metznizene level pending statutory consent compliance and approval. Earthworks foundations and concrete gable walls the only on site building works which include steel bars within concrete foundations connected to steel bar framework to support pre fabricated Gideon’s rock /debris and silicone filled to provide expansion tolerance horizontally and laterally to enhance earthquake resilience, with pre cast concrete panel and timber frame walls also having shock absorbsion and flexibility qualities. The development of this extension would also render the historic building wheel chair accessible. With the double height atrium link generating heat through solar gain in winter and cooling in summer through opening vents. All opes glazed with all doors being fire doors composed of Pyrex heat resistant glass encased in and hung on a steel frame. External concrete panels and foundation Gideon’s cast in Perspex lined formwork for a polished finished. Potential for solar panels in variant locations for the production of energy.